Of all the things that will stop you from being able to perform a movement correctly, joint mobility and inhibited muscular contraction are probably the most significant. I can count on one hand the clients I have had over the years that have not had a ROM restriction or altered muscle patterning that didn't need rectifying before I prescribed a range of exercises for them. And to be honest, I struggle with ROM every day myself; this old man needs some serious warming up before a session!
So in honour of all of you robots out there, here are three hot tips from my series that will help you and your clients achieve better mobility while squatting, rowing and racking.
This first video is to help improve front rack position for barbell lifts. This position can sometimes be awkward as it's not one we naturally get into throughout the day: forward flexion, horizontal flexion and external rotation at the GH joint combined with extreme pronation and extension under load at the wrist. Forearm flexors, triceps and lats can be really locked up, especially if the whole shoulder girdle isn't moving freely against the ribs. This stretch is perfect if your client struggles with mobility in any of those areas.
Watch this second video below, to understand the proper mechanism for a rowing movement. Sure, you can get your clients to pull on a weight or band, but is it actually doing them any good? When you look closely at the mechanics of a row, you have the opportunity to improve the contraction of the lower traps and rhomboids, but in reality most clients will find it VERY difficult to actually do that. Instead, the upper traps kick in as usual, the biceps assist and the trunk starts to rotate to assist with the ROM required.
The only way to fix this and actually improve the overall mechanics of the shoulder is to work SPECIFICALLY on the correct form by breaking down the row and regressing clients where necessary. Once they have achieved this, they actually have a hope of contracting the scapula stabilisers and reducing their risk of chronic injuries such as impingements in the coracoacromial arch, bursitis under the biceps or supraspinatus tendons and even low back and neck pain.
The final video below outlines a Cassock Squat. I give these to my beginner clients as an introduction to leg strength, co-ordination, lumbar rotation, adductor and hamstring flexibility, hip ROM and overall balance. It's also great as a warm up for my clients who come straight from the office and are keen to get into a leg session. Following the ARAS principle (Assess, Release, Activate, Strengthen), I always make sure to give a specific warm up to release the problematic hyperactive muscles the client has THAT DAY, activate the muscles I want them to be strengthening and then smashing out some good solid reps. That way I know I'm not strengthening muscles that will give them long term problems, but the muscles that will give them long term quality of life through quality movement. What's not to love about the Cassock Squat?
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It’s fair to say a large portion of what we do as fitness professionals revolves around the strength world, and for good reason too. An improvement in our client’s strength levels has a profoundly positive effect on our client’s physiological and psychological wellbeing. How we decide to obtain that strength with our clients however varies hugely from professional to professional and when we put aesthetics aside it’s very easy to see that not every training methodology is equal, in fact in this article I’m going to argue that some are even detrimental to your clients wellbeing.
If we look back on the recent history of strength training within the context of fitness centres it’s fair to say body building put strength training on the world stage and turned people’s perception of it on its head. The wider community’s perception went from “these guys are a freak show” to “wow that’s incredible sign me up!” and with this change of perception the fitness industry we work in was born. A large amount of thanks needs to go to the body building community for the opportunity we have today as exercise professionals.
What has transpired in western society (not limited to however) over the past 40 plus years though is a skyrocketing obesity rate, increase in sedentary lifestyle and then of course a host of medical issues that we all know too well which relate back to these two key issues in our society. This of course is no reflection of the fitness industry but more of a society that has become increasingly lazy, with less people willing to take responsibility of a nutritional system that is failing them in a society that’s becoming increasingly more high tech which is only promoting longer periods of inactivity.
As personal trainers I believe a key responsibility we have is to teach people how to fall back in love with movement. Somewhere between childhood and the stresses of adulthood many people fall out of love with movement or at least don’t see it as a high importance in their ever busy lifestyles. The problem is movement plays a critical role long term in dealing with so many psychological and physiological issues that currently ravages our society. Now in relation to human movement, the problem the fitness industry has begun to acknowledge since around the early 2000’s is that the traditional isolation training models that the fitness industry was built on by the body building movement doesn’t have ‘improvements in human movement’ as a central focus. It is as we know focused on creating aesthetically beautiful bodies.
Hence the birth of ‘functional training’ as we know it today, Kettlebell Swings, Squat Presses, Box Jumps, Power Cleans, Suspension Trainer exercises, Gymnastics Rings, Bosu Balls, Swiss Balls the list goes on.
Now these training methodologies are nothing new in fact some have been around for hundreds of years, the new found importance of combating the sedentary lifestyle has brought these training styles into vogue if you like. These types of movements have a proven track record as effective tools for improving human movement.
Now don’t get me wrong I love the concept of functional training and I buy into it whole-heartedly, for the reasons stated above, not to mention they are just plain fun! There’s a missing link however, a skills gap if you like, that hurts the reputation of us as exercise professionals like no other.
This is the fact that many fitness professionals don’t assess or prepare our clients well enough before prescribing these types of movements which can only be considered advanced and complex.
Let me deep dive into this a little to explain, a large portion of the typical ‘functional training’ exercises we see and use in a gym in this day in age requires high degrees of co-ordination, kinaesthetic awareness and most importantly joint stability because of the higher level of instability found with many of the movements. All of which a fair portion of our clients don’t have due to the fact they are de-conditioned, have poor body awareness and in some cases haven’t moved in decades. Fitness professionals have all the good intentions in the world for their clients and apply ‘functional training’ to get them moving how the body was designed while forgetting one very critical rule in the strength world which is:
‘Strength levels should never be increased around a joint when stability isn’t first present’
This rule as a strength training concept I call Strength through Stability. The problem with performing complex exercises when stability isn’t present is that the body then sets up compensations to deal with the instability. An Upper Trapezius will dominate a movement when our Rhomboids and Lower Trapezius is weak, creating shoulder dysfunction. Our Quadriceps and hip flexors like to dominate a movement when our Transverse Abdominis, Hamstrings and Gluteals are weak creating lumbo-pelvic dysfunction.
When these compensations are not corrected it creates poor neuromuscular patterning, which is the long term problem with not abiding by this rule as a fitness professional.
Think of a golfer that has played a hundred rounds of golf before finally going to see a golf pro to correct their swing. It’s extremely hard for the pro to make large and effective changes to their swing because the neuromuscular pattern has been engrained by 100’s of poor swings. Weightlifting is no different. So when we prescribe an exercise that the client performs incorrectly because there’s no stability around the joint, it becomes very difficult to correct the muscle imbalance present because the primary movers have become so strong and hungry to work that the stabilisers have no chance in activating and doing their fair share of the work.
Over time this means excessive wear and tear on joints as bony structures don’t track correctly and ultimately leads to a more rapid degeneration of the muscular-skeletal system. All this just because we either weren’t prepared or educated enough on how to correct the poor neuromuscular patterning present in our clients .
We effectively then are doing our clients a disservice and I’ll go as far as saying this whole topic is the major reason why fitness professionals have such a poor reputation generally speaking within the allied health profession. This is because it’s the physiotherapist, osteopath or other allied health professional that picks up the pieces when the client starts complaining of knee or shoulder pain for example.
What do I do then?
Understanding ‘Strength through stability’ is just a case of understanding 'cause and effect', a very simplistic example is knowing that when the knees bow in medially during a squat that chances are the clients Gluteals are weak while their hip flexors are overactive for example. Now I appreciate this deeper level of understanding doesn’t happen overnight and certainly doesn’t come with a Cert IV in Fitness, however you don’t need a degree in anatomy & physiology either, some sound dedication to learning the basics around which muscles are associated with dysfunctional movement is all that is required along with the corresponding activation and release exercises that go with the issue.
Having this level of detail in your personal training service is the difference between being labelled a ‘thrash & bash’ fitness professional verses one that is fully conscious of the causes and effects that exercise results on the human body which sets you apart from 95% of the pack and skyrockets your clients results.
So remember never underestimate the importance of having a sound technique while perform an exercise. If it doesn’t look right then chances are it’s not, if you’re unsure of what’s going on then consult a senior fitness professional, research information and up skill so the next time you come across the dysfunction you know how to take your clients experience from an average one to an amazing one and ensure that like us, they too fall in love with movement.
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Whether you want giant hamstrings or not, they most definitely should be on your wish list! Generally speaking, the hamstrings are the ‘ugly duckling’ to the more eye and ego-pleasing quadriceps. Yet from a performance perspective they offer so much, and also play a critical role in staying injury free. So much so in fact, that it’s worth highlighting that the hamstrings, along with the gluteals, play a vital role in knee stability and prevention of knee injuries, in particular ACL injuries which are about as common as a protein shake in a gym.
Having strong quadriceps without strong hamstrings is like strapping a V8 engine onto a bicycle. The bike (or in this case your hamstrings) have no chance in dealing with the power that your V8 quadriceps can create and it can be a recipe for disaster as the hamstrings just can’t deal with the torque that the quadriceps create, resulting in a torn hamstring or blown knee.
THE BEST HAMSTRING EXTERCISES
So now that we have clarified the importance of the hamstrings, which exercises are the most effective at building strength and size? We need to remember that the hamstrings are responsible for both knee flexion and hip extension, so a combination of these movements that simultaneously stretch the muscle while putting it under load at both its origin and insertion will put the most strain through the muscles.
There is one key characteristic that you will find is generally consistent across most great hamstring exercises: when the hips are forced to extend while the knee is also extended, this creates unparalleled lengthening of the hamstring muscle and also loads both ends of the muscle during the contraction phase of the exercise.
A study conducted by The University of Memphis took a group of untrained individuals and had them perform four well-known leg-focused exercises while measuring muscle activity. The exercises were the leg curl, Good Morning, Glute-hamstring raise and Romanian deadlift.
Although all four exercises successfully activated the measurable muscle groups, there were two exercises that stood out above the rest with an emphasis on hamstring activation. Those two exercises were the glute-hamstring raise (GHR) and the Romanian deadlift (RDL).
Both the RDL and GHR create positions where the hamstrings are placed on a huge stretch with a large amount of load. During a RDL, we hinge at the hips while the knees are virtually extended (maintaining soft knees). The focus of the movement around the hips with the knee position fixed is extremely effective at lengthening the hamstring, with the load managed at both ends due to the requirement of stability at the knee insertion and strength at the pelvic insertion.
The GHR is almost the opposite to the RDL, where the hips are fixed in an extended (stabilising) position while the knees flex and extend (strengthening) to lift your bodyweight against gravity. The midpoint that is created by a GHR is extremely intense and slightly unsettling at first as the position of your whole body prone and under load is manufactured by the machine and is not a natural position the human body would find itself in. That being said, there’s a reason why virtually every Olympic Lifting facility has one of these machines: the movement is particularly effective at strengthening the posterior line and of course in particular the hamstrings and gluteals.
Comparing these two exercises with the lying hamstring curl can give us further perspective. The research paper ranked this commonly found exercise dead last as an effective hamstring recruiter. Where’s the justice in that? After all, it’s the only exercise out of the four that more or less completely isolates the hamstrings, right? Wrong. The ‘trusty’ lying leg curl unfortunately at no point extends or loads the hips during the movement. In fact, if you have a look at a lying hamstring curl machine next time you’re at the gym, you’ll see that the machine actually flexes the hips 15-20o to help place the hamstrings on stretch. But because there’s no hip extension, all work is done around the knee joint which is only half the job of the hamstrings.
Also, we might think that the Good Morning is a very similar movement to the Romanian deadlift, so why wasn’t it as effective? Sure, it is probably better than an isolated hamstring curl, but there is something to be said for the position of the weight that is being moved. In this case, with the bar being on the shoulders the weight is a long way from the fulcrum (hips), so there is more load placed through all the joints between the hips and the weight in providing stabilisation. Therefore the spine and particularly the lower back will contribute significantly during a Good Morning and take the focus off the hamstrings, effectively reducing muscle fibre recruitment.
There are dozens of exercises that can target the hamstring muscles as a compound movement or in isolation. If you’ve been spending weeks, months, or years trying to bulk up your hamstrings without success, remember to focus on movements that actively extend both the hips and knee at some point during the movement. That way you can be sure your hamstrings are getting stressed the way they’re designed to be and you will be on a winner. If you’re not really one for mixing it up too much then be sure to keep to Romanian deadlifts and the glute-hamstring raise for best results.
• Begin by holding a pair of dumbbells or barbell
• Stand tall and keep a flat back
• Slightly bend the knees and drive your hips back
• Legs will remain stationary as you lower the weight with straight arms
• Again, keep the back flat throughout
• Pause once your body has come to a parallel position with the floor
• Return to the starting position
• Secure your feet into the pads of the Glute-Ham Raise machine
• Begin by crossing the arms against the chest
• Straighten your body, resting your hips on the center pad
• Activate the gluteals, hamstrings and calves to pull your upper body straight up
• Simultaneously, drop your knees slightly against the pad
• Your back will be flat throughout the movement
• Once you reach the top, slowly lower yourself back to the starting position, focusing tension in the hamstrings and calves
Muscle activation during various hamstring exercises, McAllister MJ, Hammond KG, Schilling BK, Ferreria LC, Reed JP, Weiss LW, Exercise Neuromechanics Laboratory, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee.
If I had a dollar for every time I’ve been asked this question by clients I’d be a millionaire.
Shallow squats, push-ups, presses and partial chin-ups all fall into the same argument of “Does it make a difference if I go full range or just partial”
What follows is a breakdown of why we should ALWAYS work through a full range of movement when we lift.
GREATER LEVEL OF GROWTH
How many times have you heard that squatting is the key to large legs? This is one of the main reasons why the squat is in the top 4 exercises to have in your repertoire. To go one step further, if you’re looking to really increase the size of your legs, then you need to start squatting deep. A study published in the European Journal of Applied Physiology showed that subjects who squatted to a full 120 degrees of flexion showed significant increases in thigh muscle mass.
HUGE BOOST IN STRENGTH
You don’t have to be a powerlifter to enjoy the strength benefits that come with performing squats. If you are a power athlete, then listen up: squatting deeper is the key to leaps and bounds in gaining strength. A study published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research had two groups: one doing shallow squats and one performing deep squats. At the end of the first half of the study, the deep squat group excelled in every measurable area with an emphasis on strength. What’s interesting is that for the second half of the study, both groups were not allowed to train for 4 weeks! The shallow squat group saw the fastest reduction in muscle and strength. The deep squat group maintained most their muscle and strength!
IMPROVES OTHER AREAS OF FITNESS
Imagine training legs on Monday and boosting your performance in other areas on Wednesday. Squatting deep has been shown to improve other areas of fitness, with an emphasis for those athletes looking for greater jumping power. A study published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research showed that subjects who squatted deep saw a significant improvement in their vertical jump and explosive power.
SAFE FOR KNEES AND ANKLES
A primary concern during the squat (and a tell-tale sign that something is wrong) is when you feel unnecessary strain in your knees and ankles. Yes, the squat is a multi-joint exercise but if you are ONLY feeling it in your knees then you need to change what you are doing. As demonstrated in this study published in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, squatting deeper will help to shift the load into the hips. This shift will alleviate excess pressure on the knees and ankles while strengthening the hip muscles.
The benefit of full range of movement and strength training is well documented. For a lot of us this makes the next step to obtain a full range of movement. This can be easier said than done at times so be sure to keep working hard with your stretching routines so you can gain the necessary flexibility. This way you can get the most out of your gym program each and every workout.
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No matter which exercise you are performing, you will move through three phases. There is the concentric, or lifting phase, the isometric, or pausing phase, and the eccentric, or lowering phase. The traditional belief has been that the concentric phase of any exercise is where you’ll find real results. Recent studies, amidst a number of self-tested advocates, are claiming just the opposite. Let’s take a look at the role of the eccentric portion of movement and why this is the phase to emphasise if you want to see dramatic improvements in strength, size, and speed.
RESISTANCE TRAINING AND THE ECCENTRIC PHASE
If you want to build pure strength and muscular size, then the eccentric portion of the lift coupled with the appropriate tempo (or speed) is what will help get you there. Why? When you are lifting a weight, your muscle fibers are focused on one task: getting the weight from point A to point B. When you are lowering the weight, your muscles now have an added task: keep the weight secure, maintain the prescribed speed, AND keep fighting against the weight. Even during the eccentric portion, you’ll still provide yourself a bit of concentric-based resistance. That same set of muscle fibers must get the weight from point B to point A while staying in complete control.
This isn’t based on gym rumors, this is actual science. A study published in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise highlighted that while the concentric portion of the lift was important, it was the eccentric portion that proved to be superior during muscle activation and long-term results.
Let’s say you’re goal is to maximize muscular size: Can eccentric training produce the results you’re looking for? Absolutely. As you’ll see in this study from Brad Schoenfield, the extensive micro tears that are produced during eccentric-based training trigger the greatest amount of muscle growth in the Type II, or fast twitch, muscle fibers.
DYNAMIC MOVEMENTS AND THE ECCENTRIC PHASE
If your fitness specialty lies in more dynamic, low volume movements such as jumping or dodging, the eccentric portion will be your ticket to amplifying overall performance. Dynamic movements such as changing direction under speed or launching yourself into the air are based on the power generated during the eccentric phase. Consider the jump squat exercise: As you lower yourself into position, your quadriceps, hamstrings, calves, and hip flexors are generating the energy needed to produce a single shot of maximum effort.
Fast paced movements that are absent of an isometric hold are amplified when the eccentric portion of the lift is emphasized. What about post workout when you are expected to stretch? Eccentric emphasis is king there as well. A study published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine demonstrated that focusing on the eccentric portion during flexibility training provided the greatest benefit.
By manipulating the tempo during the eccentric portion of any exercise, you will see the greatest results. For muscular hypertrophy, take 4 seconds to completely lower the weight. For strength and power, use high volume and a faster pace. No matter what your goal, eccentric training will help you achieve it.
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Muscular hypertrophy is one of the most common goals that fitness enthusiasts look for in the fitness industry. Hypertrophy, or muscle growth, is the intentional manipulation of a specific set of variables with the goal of creating enough stress on a set of muscle fibers to trigger growth. In other words: If you want big muscles, you need to lift for hypertrophy. Recently, the fitness world has seen a shift in focus from isolation hypertrophy to functional hypertrophy. Let’s review the differences and break down why it’s more efficient and safer to lift for function, not aesthetics.
WHAT IS ISOLATED HYPERTROPHY?
Isolation hypertrophy hit the mainstream with the emergence of bodybuilding as a professional sport. This type of hypertrophy, as the name suggests, focuses on isolating each muscle group to maximize the amount of stress placed on it. The micro tears that come as a result heal and over time the muscle expands in size to accommodate the workload. Imagine performing 30 sets or more for ONLY your quadriceps or biceps. While isolation hypertrophy is ideal for a career in bodybuilding, it does not meet the needs of your average gym-goer. Those looking to gain size while increasing strength and muscle-to-muscle communication need to train for functional hypertrophy.
WHAT IS FUNCTIONAL HYPERTROPHY?
This type of hypertrophy avoids the isolation practice that has been promoted by the bodybuilding community. The idea behind functional hypertrophy is that you can gain plenty of size while improving the neuromuscular facilities of the body. By building the relationship between muscle groups, instead of keeping them separate, you boost your overall performance as well as body composition.
For example, which do you think is more effective on a functional level? Performing the Deadlift, which is a compound movement, or performing Lying Hamstring Curls, which is an isolation exercise? The Deadlift brings into play several key muscle groups including the quadriceps, hamstrings, gluteals, lower back, and abdominals. Together, these muscles work to move the weight from point A to point B. Leg Curls, on the other hand, only focus on working the hamstrings.
DON’T CONFUSE REAL STRENGTH WITH MACHINE-BASED STRENGTH
With the bodybuilding boom that occurred decades ago, many fitness manufacturers began producing fitness machines that specifically isolated the intended muscle. The result may have been big muscles for bodybuilders but it also came with a false sense of strength. Isolating one muscle group with the intention of growth is not going to translate well when you call upon that muscle to work in a group setting.
Using the example above, what do you think would happen if the person performing Lying Hamstrings Curls suddenly began to perform Deadlifts? Do you think that person could use the same amount of weight? Maybe, but the reality is that the form and posture would probably be terrible. Working for function, calling upon several muscle groups to work together, is the best way to not only increase muscle size and strength, but also to be able to perform functional tasks in the real world. For instance, when your friends call upon you for moving day, you don’t want to be that guy who throws his back out.
BENEFITS OF FUNCTIONAL HYPERTROPHY
Burns Fat, Boosts Strength
Whether you want to gain size, increase strength, burn extra fat, or build a safety net for when you are older, functional hypertrophy is the way to do it. Focus on the big four (squats, deadlifts, bench press, and overhead press) for the most success.
If you enjoy learning more about maximing strength gains check this strength article review click here
I’ve always been a follower of the concept that exercises should regularly be changed within a program if the goal is absolute strength gains. In a squat for example, you would rotate through a series of exercises that compliment the squat on a 1-2 week basis to prevent a plateau in performance improvement. This study, "Changes in exercises are more effective than in loading schemes to improve muscle strength and size", aimed to assess the size and strength effects of varying the intensity of the training versus varying the exercise selection within a program.
They studied a group of 49 male participants, broken into five groups, and assessed the size and strength gains in the Quadriceps muscles in response to squats only, or squat/lunge/deadlift/leg press combination. The groups were also either varying intensity or not.
Their conclusion? “It’s fair to say that strength coaches will often vary intensity and exercises throughout a ST program. The results found here would argue that varying the intensity during the initial phase of a ST program is not necessary in fact might even diminish the potential results from the ST program. The study’s findings would conclude that a higher importance should be on varying exercises throughout the program in order to maximise neural drive and therefore functional adaptation. This point is certainly backed up by the fact that the two groups which varied exercises experienced muscle growth across all four quadricep muscles where the other two groups did not.”
So what does this mean? If the quadriceps that gained the most strength AND size were those that varied exercises, this is probably the way to go if you are working with clients who are looking for overall strength and/or size training. No need to focus so much on intensity at the beginning of their strength training journey, perhaps start to introduce this extra element after a solid base of strength is attained.
This study certainly backs up some of the training methodologies that are currently present is the strength training world. The one that comes to mind the most is the Conjugate Method by Louie Simmons, which is a model for gaining maximum strength based around a concept that exercises should regularly be changed within the program.
Read on for all the technical details, or leave a comment with your experience/thoughts about this theory.
Changes in exercises are more effective than in loading schemes to improve muscle strength and size
The purpose of this paper was to assess the size and strength effects of different Strength Training (ST) loading methods verses exercise selection or a combination of both within the Quadriceps muscle.
49 male participants were broken into 5 groups
• Controlled intensity controlled exercise – CICE
• Controlled intensity variable exercise – CIVE
• Variable intensity controlled exercise – VICE
• Variable intensity variable exercise – VIVE
• Control group
All participants were considered healthy and active with no illness or ailments. None of the participants participated in ST for 6 months prior to the study.
Each participant performed a 1RM Squat in a smith machine pre & post study. While their Quadriceps were also evaluated using an MRI.
Each group executed a 12 week ST program based around an initial phase of training as all participants had not been actively ST for a sustained period of time.
The ST program focus on a 6-10RM rep range while a standard 2min recovery was given between sets.
Each group had the same volume of sets in their program however each group varied in intensity or exercises depending on the group they were in. The program saw the participants ST two times a week both with a focus on lower extremities.
The controlled exercise groups only performed a squat as their exercise. While the variable exercise groups performed a squat, lunge, deadlift and leg press within each program.
All groups saw significant increases in strength, with the CICE group outperforming the VICE group. The VIVE group which had the most variability outperformed the CICE group which had the lowest variability. The winner on strength gains was however CIVE group who topped all the groups.
Again the CIVE group came out on top with an 11.6% and 12.2% increase in left and right Quadriceps size over the 12 week period. The least favourable results came from the VICE group who scored a 9.5% and 9.3% increases in left and right legs respectably.
Interesting the only two groups to get increases in size across all four quadriceps muscles were the variable exercise groups.
It’s fair to say that strength coaches will often vary intensity and exercises throughout a ST program. The results found here would argue that varying the intensity during the initial phase of a ST program is not necessary in fact might even diminish the potential results from the ST program. The study’s findings would conclude that a higher importance should be on varying exercises throughout the program in order to maximise neural drive and therefore functional adaptation. This point is certainly backed up by the fact that the two groups which varied exercises experienced muscle growth across all four quadricep muscles where the other two groups did not.
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Fonseca, R.M.; Roschel, H.; Tricoli, V. de Souza, E.; Wilson, J.M.; Laurentino,G.C; Aihara, A.Y.; de Souza Leão, A.R; Ugrinowitsch, C., Changes in exercises are more effective than in loading schemes to improve muscle strength and size, Laboratory of Neuromuscular Adaptations to Strength Training, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, Department of Health Science and Human Performance, University of Tampa, Tampa, FL, USA
Tristan Hill, Masters of Sports Coaching, author of Lifting the Bar and mentor to Personal Trainers.